Among phenotypes, quantitative traits are usually caused by many chromosomal loci (quantitative trait locus, QOL) in a complex manner, and researches using dogs have been fruitful. A number of dog breeds have been produced by human beings. The morphological character is highly variable among breeds, but uniformed within the same breed. Genome-wide association studies that coupled craniometric data obtained from various dog breeds have been conducted, and QTLs in which SNPs that might affect the skull shape existed concentratively were identified. One of the QTLs was mapped near BMP3 gene on Ch. 32, and it was shown that most breeds with shortened head had a common missense mutation in BMP3. Data on the background: Figure 3 of Schoenebeck et al. (2012) PLoS Genet. 8, e1002849 (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002849). Upper panel: SNP distribution around BMP3 locus among various dog breeds. Lower panel: Plots of important SNPs (conserved, exonic, etc.) extracted from the upper panel.
Flow cytometry is a technology that allows high throughput analysis of the characteristics of cell populations by optically and rapidly measuring the morphological characteristics and fluorescent signals of the cells suspended in a narrow stream of fluid in equipment (flow cytometer). In addition, the equipment with a cell sorter can collect a certain type of cells from a heterogeneous population by charging droplets containing such cells identified by the optical data and attracting them by an electrostatic deflector. In this post town in this drawing, 'Positive' inn on the right and 'Negative' inn on the left are finding and attracting potential customers from passersby. They just look like a cell sorter. There is seen above them a cluster of clouds that resembles flow cytometric data.